length of dual wire‐stranded stereo speaker wire and. Department of Commerce/National Bureau of Standards, December 1976. Balanis – Free Download PDF IS THIS MATERIAL IS HELPFUL, KINDLY SHARE IT & RATE IT READ MORE : [PDF] A New Pattern Text Book of Physical Chemistry for Competitions: A New Generation Book for IIT-JEE & All other Engineering Entrance Examinations By O. PIFA antennas are used widely in mobile phone antennas design due to its advantages such as. With PCB traces, as the antenna design is susceptible to the overall PCB design, it is difficult to perform tuning and achieve the desired performance. It outlines how to build yagis for 144Mhz, 220Mhz, several different 440 band frequencies, 900 Mhz, and 1. The Arrl Uhf/Microwave Experimenter's Manual: Antennas, Components, And Design American Radio Relay League Download Now. The second design shown in Figure 3(b) is a cavity backed design where the co-planar antennas are located inside and at the center of a metal cavity; this design allows the antenna to be flush mounted. Added a 5,91 M OWA inch version. Fig (6) Design of single patch antenna in HFSS SIMULATION RESULTS The 2x2 patch array antenna is simulated using Ansoft HFSS. , dish antennas), phased array. density in all directions. 3 Design, fabrication and assembly of the shm-ous antenna The requirement of dual polarization dictates the need to have two equivalent structures, each catering to one sense of polarization. Optimized the description of EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) in Chapter 2. The course concludes with the Antenna IQ test. " What exactly does that mean? Well, you need to know what a fractal is. On HF, one of the factors that determine how far your signal goes is the takeoff angle. Antenna Toolbox™ provides functions and apps for the design, analysis, and visualization of antenna elements and arrays. 001-91445 Rev. Goals: Design the “best” antenna I can given my knowledge of the direction the signal will be coming from, the size constraint of the enclosure and the frequency. You can build an active antenna for just a receiver or use an LC network to tune a shorter wire but it will be compromised in ability. BUILD YOUR YAGI ANTENNA. Sold by TEXTBookAMAZING and ships from Amazon Fulfillment. antenna theory and design stutzmann pdf Con 9 yt Wk So Aare red Pied sian in Cana {tinue oe 9% Oe Ste Cops coon ace ee iro Comes aging i Pte Date PREFACE “This book isthe rst of. We want enough forward gain to hit the local repeater. The more antenna tuners, matching devices, and electronic components in the signal path the more RF energy that is absorbed before getting to the receiver's front end. 4 Download Link. Viezbicke, “Yagi Antenna Design,” NBS Technical Note 688, U. 0 — June 2017 Application note Document information Info Content Keywords QN9080, QN9083, BLE, USB dongle, PCB layout, MIFA, chip antenna, antenna simulation, gain pattern. SLOT ANTENNAS Tapered slot antennas (TSAs) were first introduced in the late 1950s. Those kinds of antennas can cover a single band, dual band, wideband and multiband based on the design of the antenna. 79 KB Detect Killer Tornadoes. From photos Ive seen and regular visitors Ive talked to usually 2 of the biggest glass jugs readily available for low-medium power commercial SW at the time going back to the early 30's. Above was just a small sampling of all the antenna design and RF layout guidelines you’ll find in today’s Everyday App Note from Cypress. On this page you can read or download wave basics the physics classroom answers in PDF format. Radius of curvatures should be above 800' at maximum design w ind loads. Antenna Web Design Studio - Shareware Total download: 937 in Development Antenna Web Design Studio offers a powerful web design software for creating promotional web sites and an interactive Curriculum Vitae. 4 cm, 868 MHz: 8. (Possible subs include: J308-310, U310, 2N4857-4860. , dish antennas), phased array. 2019 at 06:38 said: Micro Strip Antenna Design Handbook - Garg, Bhartia, Bahl, It Tipi Boon - Free ebook download as PDF File. - But illustrates sizes and importance of good antenna design • Why microstrip antennas? - The patch antenna is a good place to start for antenna fundamentals With more coming: 5G (or whatever), Wireless Display, Wireless USB, etc. Usually, the only option for. Antenna Theory Analysis And Design 3rd Ed Item Preview remove-circle Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1. The gain of an antenna in a given direction is the amount of energy radiated in that direction compared to the energy an isotropic antenna would radiate in the same direction when driven with the same input power. Download >> Antenna Theory: Analysis And Design, 3Rd. Two Band Tilt Antenna A simple bi-directional antenna for 10 meter operation, and a non-directional 20 meter antenna, is shown in Fig. com Master thesis Subject Category: Electrical Engineering- Communication and Signal processing University College of Borås School of Engineering SE‐501 90 BORÅS Telephone +46 033 435 4640. Introduction An antenna is an electrical conductor or system of conductors oTransmission - radiates electromagnetic energy into space oReception - collects electromagnetic energy from space In two-way communication, the same. If 9 dB gain is still not enough for you then increase the number of coax elements from eight to sixteen. Step 2 Drill a 1/16-inch pilot hole for each screw location. added second version on the 13,00 M 7el OWA version. 6 Other Useful Links. awarded in 1978 a contract to Lockheed to develop the F-117A. On one hand, we have the design of a non-resonant part of the antenna which has to use the ground plane to help to improve the radiation in the lowest frequencies. Once an antenna design is chosen, we design our antenna using a simulation program. This is a unique design which met the requirements of AC Daughty Inc. Microstrip Patch Antennas (or simply patch antenna) are increasingly useful because the antenna is printed directly onto a circuit board. A parabola antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with cross sectional shape of a parabola to direct the radio waves. Design impedance matching networks for the two antennas in Parts A, B, and C. 3:1 SWR, and tests conducted with an MFJ-259B antenna ana-lyzer verified this. My advice is to use a quality product, do the job right the first time and you'll only have to do it once. You can build an active antenna for just a receiver or use an LC network to tune a shorter wire but it will be compromised in ability. An overview of antenna design considerations is presented. – No, all antenna have multiple resonances. frequencies so that it can be broadcast along with the carrier by the high-pass antenna. It features a succinct treatment of the finite difference, time domain (FDTD) computational technique. A very detailed construction guide (classic Heathkit-style step-by-step instructions) is available as a PDF document. for 1/2 inch copper pipe J-Pole antennas. On the fundamental frequency, antenna pattern is identical no matter where you feed it. Overview of Microstrip Antennas. Antenna Theory and Design By Warren L. An antenna made from a solid disk and cone could weigh several pounds and would offer a considerable wind resistance. The formulas above are for typical wire dimensions. Object of the design: There are many designs and information available on the net concerning “ Magnetic Loop Antennas”. Location and antenna helped in the days before Telrex Big Berthas. TiWi-uB2 Module ANTENNA DESIGN GUIDE The information in this document is subject to change without notice. an alternate novel design for the construction of an efficient miniature antenna is considered, and the design aspects, in ad-dition to the simulated results, are described. IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. Antenna Design. Half-Lamda Tee Antenna 4 3. pdf) or view presentation slides online. 2 A CLL-based AMC block will act as an in-phase reflector for a low-profile dipole antenna near it: (a) geometry, (b) E-plane and (c) H-plane patterns compared to the dipole radiating in free space. Fractal Antenna Elements and Arrays Here is an excellent introduction to a new technique for antennas with both wide bandwidth and reduced size X. Applied Sciences (CIICAp), Autonomous University of Morelos State (UAEM), 62209, Av. ADVANCED SHIPBOARD TOPSIDE ANTENNA DESIGN • SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) • Systems of Systems Division • Next generation SIGINT IO – Expanded frequency coverage – Improved and multi functional capabilities in single antenna aperture – Improved RF performance – Sensitivity, Gain, Direction Finding Accuracy. Antennas for 5G applications make use of the shorter element sizes at high frequencies to incorporate a larger count of radiating. an ideal bow -tie design, the antenna in Figure 1 has the following innovations: - custom circuitry for antenna driver matching - rounded corners to reduce charge accumulation phenomena Figure 1 shows the layout of the antenna with reference to implementation in a 65 nm SOI CMOS technology. Antenna Theory Analysis And Design 4th Edition Pdf. Also estimate the self inductance of a small. 1 Antenna Arrays Arrays of antennas are used to direct radiated power towards a desired angular sector. Singh Book. omni directional antenna and a biquad directional antenna. He previously was principal engineer at Lockheed Martin Astronautics, where he specialized in microwave antenna design and analysis. How to design a 13. Since HF signals refract off the ionosphere back to earth, the lower the angle, the longer the distance. Dynamics of Structures Chopra - 3d ed solution manual 2016-04-10 · is good to introduction to structural dynamics basic Structural Design Engineer at TTW Structural Design and Inspection Team. REINFORCEMENT HANDBOOK - Structural Engineers. All too often a wireless product with subpar performance may even fail network operator approvals due to a poor performing antenna. Antennas & Propagation CS 6710 Spring 2010 Rajmohan Rajaraman. In the far field,2 the electric field and magnetic field at any given location are perpendicular both. The received ideal antenna gain is given by: Gr 4 A 2 A Gr 2 4 (3) Thus Pr PtGGr 4 R/ 2 (4) 1 –Denotes the beginning of an example. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. (At the top of the antenna if you cut the Helix Coil Base long enough to allow for this). ISBN-13: 978-0471449966. NFC TAG Antenna Design Guide 6 Shape of antenna Antenna inductance [µ H] Resonant capacitor [pF][mm] Communication distance [mm] Size [mm2] Track width [mm] Spacing Number of turns [turn] Without external DC supply With external DC supply FeliCa Type B FeliCa Type B 72 x 42 0. THE (VHF) DIPOLE ANTENNA At VHF and UHF, most antenna systems are derived from the dipole or its complement, the slot antenna. It features a succinct treatment of the finite difference, time domain (FDTD) computational technique. Dipole antenna design. The multi-band trap antenna is not a new concept. A balanced antenna such as a dipole is a 1/2 wavelength, so divide that by 2 for the physical length of a 50 meter dipole, so 25 meter length is correct. J-Pole antenna is pretty easy to build and usually designed by amateur radio operators. How to design a 13. Luka and Adeyemi A. Antenna Toolbox™ provides functions and apps for the design, analysis, and visualization of antenna elements and arrays. In total, 64 F-117s have been built. 38 and a thickness of 1. Addeddate 2015-12-23 16:29:19 Identifier Antenna. The Yagi-Uda antenna is comprised of a set of. monitoringtimes. At the heart of every radio and MLA (Magnetic Loop Antenna) is the resonant circuit. Antennas by Kraus. antenna feed point to help lower SWR. through the detailed design and construction of a working Ham EH-Antenna, and provides the tools to design an EH Antenna for any specific applications. Folded Dipole Page 1 Folded Dipole The folded dipole is a very popular wire antenna, for a number of reasons: Impedance properties (easy to match, as we will see); Ease of construction; Structural rigidity; Wider bandwidth than =2 dipole (not proved here). Beam Antenna Height versus DX Signal Arrival Angle Gary Wescom – N0GW 1/29/08 It is probably universal for us to imagine the great DX we will be able to talk to with our first beam antenna. The attached instruction sheet is courtesy of WA5VJB who designed these antennas. 8MHz(5-CH), 7MHz(3-CH), 14~28MHz(4-CH) The model 330V is a 5-band V-dipole antenna of an hybrid type by employing trap and relay controlled matching tuner. • 5G mobile phone and base station antenna design in FEKO • FEKO combines optimization and dedicated solvers for arrays and electrically large structures • Ideal solution for 5G antenna design • 5G radio channel and radio coverage analysis in WinProp • For all types of environments: urban, dense urban, suburban, rural, industrial,. Thus, the main advantage of the broadband characteristic of the helical antenna is that the dimensions are not critical. In the first design shown in Figure 3(a), the co-planar patch antennas with their substrate layers are located above the ground plane. The aforementioned antenna is designed to operate in the 5. The significance of a perfect match becomes more pronounced only at VHF and higher, where feed-line losses are a major factor. 1 introduction 4 1. It is also the first text to treat physical theory of diffraction (PTD). antenna feed point to help lower SWR. necessary for the accurate modelling and design of microwave components. No real antenna can have an isotropic radiation pattern, but the isotropic radiation pattern serves as reference for comparing the radiation. The receiving properties of antennas are characterized by the antenna affective area A(f,T,I), where the available power at the output of the receiving antenna Pr(f) is the product of the effective area of the receiving antenna in direction T,I and the flux density S(Wm-2Hz-1) incident from that direction; i. Set the Design Frequency to 1. Antenna Aperture Design The ACE antenna architecture [1-4] was the starting point when considering options for adding Ku- and/or W- band AESA scanning capability. 2 ANTENNA BASICS This section provides a brief tutorial on antenna design concepts that will help the reader to understand the designs described in later sections. This is first in a series of posts to help guide your Bluetooth RF design. But It is hard to design V2X antenna because it requires additional implementation of the V2X while maintaining the existing services of the vehicle antenna. Gülbin Dural March 2009, 149 pages In this thesis, parametric study and design of Vivaldi antennas and arrays are studied. - Uses elevated radials for higher gain. Click Apply. AlakMajumder "Design of an H-shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for Bluetooth Applications" International Journal of. Dipole Antenna - Balun 9 13. • If we assume othe average beamwidth of rhombic antenna as 10 , then design an antenna system such that it will radiate maximum power over the. A dual band antenna and a microstrip fed patch antenna, used in the communication lab. Rouphael PDF, ePub eBook D0wnl0ad Wireless Receiver Architectures and Design presents the various designs and architectures of wireless receivers in the context of modern multi-mode and multi-standard devices. A discone antenna typically has at least three major components: the disc,. However, when using it with an End-Fed antenna it is. An isotropic antenna (isotropic radiator) is a hypothetical antenna that radiates equal signal power in all directions. 5 thoughts on “ Microstrip antenna design handbook by ramesh garg pdf ” Siagria T. Some forms of aperture antennas are shown in Figure 2. Through this software, you can easily find out four important parameters to build this antenna namely, Radiator length, Driven Stud length, Gap space, and Feedpoint. It features a succinct treatment of the finite difference, time domain (FDTD) computational technique. 0 2012-06-09 David WEI Initial 1. Part I is concerned with monopole antennas in free space. It is designed to give you a better basic understanding of how the Yagi is designed and the basic functions of each of its parts. Dear User, this browser is not supported by this application. Established in 1968, the Antennas & Electromagnetics (Antennas) Group has comprehensive experimental facilities housed in the Antenna Measurement Laboratory, which has recently received £1 million in infrastructure investment. Design of a 1. It is the purpose of this paper to provide the interested reader with a general body of knowledge of AM antenna systems. There is no collinear mobile design for HF frequencies due to the extremely large components necessarily that make a mobile design impractical. Singh Book. , Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Supervisor: Prof. According to the necessary problem solving steps, the solution type for the present model is set to driven. Design simple antennas to achieve specified electrical performance 4. Top Ten Antenna Design Considerations 3 1 Start Early Antenna performance is heavily dependent on antenna size and frequently on the size of printed circuit board ground planes. 1, January 2016 DOI: 10. Antenna Fundamentals An antenna is a device for converting electromagnetic radiation in space into electrical currents in conductors or vice-versa, depending on whether it is being used for receiving or for transmitting, respectively. 46 KB Dielectric Materials at Microwave Frequencies. Solutions manual. • Large finite antenna arrays are solved efficiently and quickly with the new array tool + DDM in HFSS V14 • The most accurate solution possible is achieved through mesh re-use of a well converged unit cell • Setup of finite arrays is easier than ever, only requiring drawing of a single unit cell. This results in radiated fields that have a high directivity in the E-plane of the antenna. 2 months ago Dynamics of structures anil k chopra 1. ADVANCED SHIPBOARD TOPSIDE ANTENNA DESIGN • SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) • Systems of Systems Division • Next generation SIGINT IO – Expanded frequency coverage – Improved and multi functional capabilities in single antenna aperture – Improved RF performance – Sensitivity, Gain, Direction Finding Accuracy. 5 isolation 12 1. Antenna design and RF layo ut are critical in a wireless system that transmits and receives electromagnetic radiation in free space. (f AI) θ E 1316×10-16 2 sin = r fIl E 4π×10−7 ( )sinθ = r : distance A : area of the loop r θθ Length :l I I Illustration of a loop antenna Illustration of a dipole antenna FCC B level Mag. The Electric Dipole and Thin Linear Antennas. Coaxial Traps for Multiband Antennas, the True Equivalent Circuit By Karl-Otto Müller, DG1MFT A new perspective on the analysis and design of this popular antenna element. Introduction. In Section. antennas it can well extend to several tens of meters. With PCB traces, as the antenna design is susceptible to the overall PCB design, it is difficult to perform tuning and achieve the desired performance. It is designed to give you a better basic understanding of how the Yagi is designed and the basic functions of each of its parts. The sole functionality of an antenna is power radiation or reception. Some theory and construction. There are carrier requirements (from the cell plan carriers like AT&T, Orange, China Mobile, etc), and regulatory requirements (from the FCC for instance). 4 GHz PCB Antenna This document describes an Inverted-F 2. Here you can downkoad the antenna and wave propagation or antenna theory and design books free pdf by all famous writer like K. 56 MHz customized antenna for ST25 NFC / RFID Tags Introduction The ST25 NFC (near field communication) and RFID (radio frequency identification) tags extract their power from the reader field. The inductance and quality factor value of the antenna were designed using an EM simulator tool. IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. More recent units, such as the WET-11, do NOT use dipoles as their antenna. There are many antenna classes, such as reflector antennas (e. Antennas by Kraus. ] on Amazon. The antenna will need a source. 1 – Various types of antenna systems. The proposed s-shaped monopole antenna’s design model is illustrated in Figure 1. Joymax Wi-Fi/WLAN antennas are designed with 2. Antenna: Over-The-Air HDTV Antenna Instructions Antenna Fundamentals- Module 4: Radio Antenna Systems - Antenna Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition Antenna Engineering Handbook Small Antenna Design (Communications Engineering (Paperback)) Practical Antenna Handbook 5/e Small Antenna Handbook Phased Array Antenna Handbook, Second Edition. However, many Hams are not completely familiar with the design principle of such antennas and so a brief description of this principle may be of interest. The design frequency, the feedpoint impedance, will be between 80 and 150 ohms. through the detailed design and construction of a working Ham EH-Antenna, and provides the tools to design an EH Antenna for any specific applications. In this manner, this project is divided into two main parts. 4 GHz or 5 GHz WLAN systems. The result was, that an antenna with 150cm. A lot of pages (technical info), have been removed. Radiation pattern measurement using near field approach is possible for the latter case, even inside a small-scale laboratory. Download Permission. Fractals A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided in parts,. Hoverman and it was patented in the sixties. About the Antennas & Electromagnetics Research Group. AN-1811Bluetooth Antenna Design ABSTRACT This application note is intended for designers using the LMX5251 or LMX5252 Bluetooth® radio chips or LMX9820A or LMX9830 Bluetooth modules. Once an array has been designed to focus towards a particular direction, it. The height of the dielectric substrate (h) = 1. The J-Pole antenna is an adaptation of a 1/2 wavelength radiator end fed by a 1/4 J-Pole design by explaining how we arrived at the appropriated lengths for the various sections of the antenna. However, with some improvements, the antenna can receive well both the UHF as well as VHF-Hi. 5 inches and the 1/4 wavelength stub section (Section B) is equal to. Designing loop antennas beyond the circular and square rectangular types we have already discussed, for which analytical expressions exist, may require the use of computational methods. The researchers have proposed a series of design methods of omnidirectional high-gain antennas: (1) coaxial collinear antenna [1{3]: the antenna adopts multiple coaxial radiators which are coaxially arranged, and the short-circuit component in the terminal provides. The more antenna tuners, matching devices, and electronic components in the signal path the more RF energy that is absorbed before getting to the receiver's front end. The first of two designs uses wire radials for both the disk and the cone portion of the antenna. Above was just a small sampling of all the antenna design and RF layout guidelines you'll find in today's Everyday App Note from Cypress. Several design issues such as metal thickness, line width, and spacing between conductive coils related to the performance of. Historically, microwave engineering has provided solutions for these tasks. It should also be noted that these antennas are often complicated structures to design and implement, which may have cost and reliability implications. It is used to design J-pole antennas for the desired frequency. AlakMajumder “Design of an H-shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for Bluetooth Applications” International Journal of. • VK2ABQ may have been the first to publish a design with his "square " antenna. Since HF signals refract off the ionosphere back to earth, the lower the angle, the longer the distance. WONDER BAR ANTENNA. The simulation results of band notch antennas indicate that the proposed antenna fulfils the excellent band notch characteristics for various frequency bands and showing the good return loss and radiation. 2A long--for operation in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequency range. However, when using it with an End-Fed antenna it is. Home of Antenna Web Design Studio and CatsCradle. His design only covered a part of UHF band. Design or build your antenna here! Antenna project contributions are from all over the world! HF, Vhf, Uhf antenna projects and lots more! PDF Download New! ANTENNA FEED LINE MATCHING(Explained in simple terms by W4BWS) New!WHAT IS THE DISTANCE TO THE HORIZON A handy set of distance calculators! New!. Digital TV Coat Hanger Antenna page 3 Digital TV Coat Hanger Antenna Step 3. -A Common mode current flow Dipole antenna theory r. Reflector-Type Antennas. If 9 dB gain is still not enough for you then increase the number of coax elements from eight to sixteen. So an antenna that directs most of its energy into a narrow beam (at least in one plane) will have a higher gain. plus-circle Add Review. considered in the design of small antennas typically include impedance, radiation efficiency, pattern shape, polarization and particularly operating bandwidth and quality factor (Q). The gain of an antenna in a given direction is the amount of energy radiated in that direction compared to the energy an isotropic antenna would radiate in the same direction when driven with the same input power. Design impedance matching networks for the two antennas in Parts A, B, and C. All too often a wireless product with subpar performance may even fail network operator approvals due to a poor performing antenna. Kyu Han1,2, Madhavan Swaminathan1,2, P. Once an antenna design is chosen, we design our antenna using a simulation program. In addition to addressing essential microchip antenna theory, the authors highlight current design and engineering practices, emphasizing pressing issues such as broadbanding, circular polarization and active microstrip antennas in particular. CIRIA guideline, Eurocode 2, ACI code, Canadian Code, etc. The dipole antenna is an easily designed and made antenna usually used on HF, although can be (and sometimes is) made for VHF and UHF antennas, and in varying forms is also used as part of different designs of antennas i. He holds rich industry experience, with senior positions as an antenna development engineer at Amphenol T&M Antennas, Nokia, and Apple, giving him a perspective of design practices at a number of different players in the mobile segment. It is used for the operation of the wireless objects by receiving the waves and distributing them accordingly. Initiated as an update of Bahl and Bhartia's 1980 work, Microstrip Antennas, this resource for designers took on a new form completely to accommodate the field's many new developments. This post will show two variants of this antenna that can be used to receive 170. Half-Lamda Tee Antenna 4 3. To receive DTV signals from all stations in the area, your antenna needs to be able to receive both VHF channels (channels 2-13) and UHF channels (channels 14-51, soon to be channels 14-36 after completion of this transition). The parameters evaluated were gain, beamwidth and return loss. 2 the need for antenna integration 5 1. For example, indoor "rabbit ears. For this reason, trade offs are made in the design of these antennas. an alternate novel design for the construction of an efficient miniature antenna is considered, and the design aspects, in ad-dition to the simulated results, are described. Also estimate the self inductance of a small. This antenna was first presented at Pacificon 2010. pdf - Free ebook download as PDF File (. Study of the Off Centre Fed Dipole Antenna - G8ODE Short Long Feed point The Off Centre Fed Half-wave Dipole The Off-Centre Fed Half-Wave Dipole, more commonly referred to as the OCFD, is very popular because it offers good performance as a multi-band antenna using an antenna matching unit in conjunction with a 4:1 or 6:1 current balun. Here you can directly get it ⇩ ⇰ File formats: ePub, PDF, Kindle, Audiobook, mobi, ZIP. Antenna Basic Concepts ANTENNA An antenna is a device to transmit and/or receive electromagnetic waves. For best user experience we recommend to use an updated version of the most widely browsers like Chrome, Firefox. Unfortunately its performance is too often compromised by a lack of ground or symmetrical counterpoise. Microwave Engineering by David M. : > @ 1 r 4. The vertically oriented STL antenna's figure-of-8 doughnut shaped radiation pattern maximum is in the plane of the loop with nulls at right angles to the plane of the loop. Form initial design and simulate it using HFSS • ECE 682z Tasks: 1. Antennas by Kraus. Download Permission. Antenna Theory Analysis And Design 3rd Ed Item Preview remove-circle Internet Archive HTML5 Uploader 1. You can design standalone antennas and build arrays of antennas using either predefined elements with parameterized geometry or arbitrary planar elements. Digi’s Wireless Design Services has a state of the art RF testing lab along with experienced engineers that design hundreds of certification ready products each year. The Quadrifilar Helix Antenna (QHA) is a simple and inexpensive solution to the problem of non-geosynchronous satellite research. If 9 dB gain is still not enough for you then increase the number of coax elements from eight to sixteen. AN383 6 Rev. 88 ft and 44 ft are popular lengths. 2 cm) You can "curl up" such an antenna and make a helical antenna. can be used to support a beam antenna for 20, 15 or 10 meters or a light tri-band beam antenna. Lens, Long Wires, and Other Types of Antennas. Understand and use the standard antenna parameters 2. Antenna Aperture Design The ACE antenna architecture [1-4] was the starting point when considering options for adding Ku- and/or W- band AESA scanning capability. BUILD YOUR YAGI ANTENNA. 4 diversity 11 1. Antenna impedance and transmission lines. The idea behind this antenna is to replace my existing Channel Master 4-bay antenna (CM4221). For best user experience we recommend to use an updated version of the most widely browsers like Chrome, Firefox. Attach the antenna to whatever base you plan to use. This antenna is used in a wide variety of applications where an RF antenna design with gain and directivity is required. It features a succinct treatment of the finite difference, time domain (FDTD) computational technique. There is a general lack of measured data comparing small transmitting loop antennas to some sort of standard antenna. BASIC ANTENNA THEORY. The height of the conductor (t) = 0. WIPL-D has been used effectively in this project to design antennas that meet or exceed the constraints imposed on their design and operation by Dr. Gray-Hoverman is an easy to build wideband UHF antenna. Antennas by Kraus. The layout. " What exactly does that mean? Well, you need to know what a fractal is. 1: 900MHz 6dBi Yagi Antenna Yagi antennas are recommended for Ground-Station applications due to their size. AN-1811Bluetooth Antenna Design ABSTRACT This application note is intended for designers using the LMX5251 or LMX5252 Bluetooth® radio chips or LMX9820A or LMX9830 Bluetooth modules. 2101 1 DESIGN OF A YAGI-UDA ANTENNA WITH GAIN AND BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT FOR WI-FI AND WI-MAX APPLICATIONS Vinay Bankey 1 and N. Further information can be found at W9WIS’s web site. Design of a Dual Patch Triangular Microstrip Antenna. , dish antennas), phased array. net) Introduction Due to the tremendous response to my portable vertical antenna (July 2002 QST), I’ve continued to evolve the design. It usually consists of a metal "patch" on top of a grounded dielectric substrate. Antenna Design AN 1629 UHF RFID Label UHF Antenna Design Rev. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Apparently, the designs work very well Kent entered the 432 MHz version in a recent antenna contest and lost by 0. Viezbicke, "Yagi Antenna Design," NBS Technical Note 688, U. The antenna consists of a half-way dipole driven element and a passive reflector. Antenna: Over-The-Air HDTV Antenna Instructions Antenna Fundamentals- Module 4: Radio Antenna Systems - Modern Antenna Design Modern Antenna Handbook Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition Antenna Theory: Analysis And Design, 3Rd Ed Small Antenna Design. Microstrip Patch Antennas (or simply patch antenna) are increasingly useful because the antenna is printed directly onto a circuit board. It also discussed the equation needed to design the proposed dipole antenna. There is also a short Glossary on commonly used terms related to antenna technology. 5 thoughts on “ Microstrip antenna design handbook by ramesh garg pdf ” Siagria T. Develop a list of requirements for the antenna design 5. -A Common mode current flow Dipole antenna theory r. in Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. Requires ¼ wave radials for each band or many (60+) short radials. Antenna Web Design Studio - Shareware Total download: 937 in Development Antenna Web Design Studio offers a powerful web design software for creating promotional web sites and an interactive Curriculum Vitae. MMANA-Gal - Free antenna design and modelling software. Many access points use dipole(s) as their antenna, the WAP-11 is one such AP. 8, 2009 153 Design and Evaluation of a Compact Antenna for Implant-to-Air UWB Communication Tharaka Dissanayake, Member, IEEE, Mehmet R. Ships from and sold by nettextstore. If the antenna had a 100% radiation efficiency, all directivity would be converted to gain. Also called “patch antennas” One of the most useful antennas at microwave frequencies (f > 1 GHz). Reinaldo Perez, in Wireless Communications Design Handbook, 1998. It also has a wide angle of beam in its radiation pattern. While there are plenty of high performance antenna designs,. - But illustrates sizes and importance of good antenna design • Why microstrip antennas? - The patch antenna is a good place to start for antenna fundamentals With more coming: 5G (or whatever), Wireless Display, Wireless USB, etc. Curtis, John D. Using the latest antenna design software, he has developed several variations for 144 thru 1296 MHz. 1”copper tubing). An antenna made from a solid disk and cone could weigh several pounds and would offer a considerable wind resistance. Quad Antenna Design 987 - 1998 Suzuki Quad Runner 250 & King Quad 280 Service Manual Antenna Design Hf Antenna Design 5g Antenna Design Microwave Antenna Design Pdf Antenna Theory And Design 5g Antenna Design Thesis Ham Radio Antenna Design Antenna Design Software Antenna Theory Analysis And Design 4th Antenna Theory: Analysis And Design. Historically, microwave engineering has provided solutions for these tasks. A number of modifications meant to increase directive gain and produce a better performance are made to the well-known Yagi antenna herein. Initiated as an update of Bahl and Bhartia's 1980 work, Microstrip Antennas, this resource for designers took on a new form completely to accommodate the field's many new developments. Its maximum performance should be at the frequency or in the band for Antennas: Design, Application and Performance Application Note AN-00500 Revised 8/20/12. They are often convenient and easy to use. Viezbicke, "Yagi Antenna Design," NBS Technical Note 688, U. Schaubert; Publisher: John Wiley & Sons ISBN: 9780780310780 Category: Technology & Engineering Page: 431 View: 9828 DOWNLOAD NOW » "This anthology combines 15 years of microstrip antenna technology research into one significant volume and includes a special introductory tutorial by the co-editors. The significance of a perfect match becomes more pronounced only at VHF and higher, where feed-line losses are a major factor. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. A center-fed dipole antenna is presented as a design/simulation example. Antenna Design AN 1629 UHF RFID Label UHF Antenna Design Rev. as the driven element for directional antennas. 73 Dipoles and Long Wire Antennas. 4 Download Link. In most cases, directional helical antennas are mounted over a ground plane, while omnidirectional designs may not be. Due to the variety of methods of analysis and design, and the. For best user experience we recommend to use an updated version of the most widely browsers like Chrome, Firefox. In the microstrip patch antenna design, the effective electrical length of a patch antenna is O/2. Windom Antenna - Feed with coax cable 7 8. Digital OTA TV now offers more channels all with outstanding picture and sound quality. less than optimal design. We will use this wavelength equation for all of our calculations. Helical antennas invented by John Kraus give a circular polarized wave. 2 to 39 Wavelengths). Additionally, low dielectric permittivity of the PCB makes the antenna highly sensitive to design changes and tolerance variations. It must be inexpensive. Answers to the test and all problems are given in the Answers. Design and Analysis of Microstrip Patch Antenna Arrays Ahmed Fatthi Alsager, [email protected] The art work is included at the end of the report. These files may be accessed. It is a variable frequency signal generator that shows the matching – frequency, impedance and VSWR - of the connected antenna. Fractals A fractal is a rough or fragmented geometric shape that can be subdivided in parts,. Also called “patch antennas” One of the most useful antennas at microwave frequencies (f > 1 GHz). Installation instruction addendum for all newer antennas are also listed in this link. monitoringtimes. • Our regular antennas work by "recieving" the electric field portion of the radio wave. With modeling you can determine the. design philosophy followed to design the sinuous element. Keywords: antenna, microstrip, customized flower shape patch. antenna feed point to help lower SWR. Also, the corner-reflector antenna exhibits a good radiation. About two years ago, Bill began a cycle of design and testing that would lead to a series of articles on impedance transformers for receiving antennas at low frequencies. You are here. RF / Microwave PC Board Design and Layout Rick Hartley L-3 Avionics Systems richard. However, thanks to other hams like Steve AA5TB there are tried and tested designs, calculators & building methods that are known to work and that you can follow. 10 AND 12 METER WIRE. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Determining how to best. The number, geometrical arrangement, and relative amplitudes and phases of the array elements depend on the angular pattern that must be achieved. The second design shown in Figure 3(b) is a cavity backed design where the co-planar antennas are located inside and at the center of a metal cavity; this design allows the antenna to be flush mounted. The first idea limits us to a single antenna. High level overview of the antenna architecture trade space addressed. AN11994 QN908x BLE Antenna Design Guide Rev 1. Dear User, this browser is not supported by this application. 56 MHz tag cannot possibly radiate very well. This antenna is very adapted at VHF and UHF domain inside 30 MHZ to 900 MHZ. This antenna is intended to cover the lower end of the 6 meter band with less than a 1. Once an antenna design is chosen, we design our antenna using a simulation program. antennas, to meet the subsystem design requirements, such as addressing multiple antenna-feed locations. Helix Antenna. antenna feed point to help lower SWR. He previously was principal engineer at Lockheed Martin Astronautics, where he specialized in microwave antenna design and analysis. Antenna design and RF layout are critical in a wireless system that transmits and receives electromagnetic radiation in free space. Download Permission. Remember that gain is a measure of how much of the power is radiated in a given direction. gain antenna is that the omnidirectional gain should be higher than 4dBi. Highly respected authors have reunited to update the well known 1981 edition which is still hailed as one of the best in its field. This application note also recommends two Cypress-tested PCB antennas that can be implemented at a very low cost for use with the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) solutions that are part of Cypress s PSoC® and PRoC families. The Electric Dipole and Thin Linear Antennas. Added a 5,91 M OWA inch version. Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, 2nd Edition contantine a balanis. You can design standalone antennas and build arrays of antennas using either predefined elements with parameterized geometry or arbitrary planar elements. antenna theory , C. Several design issues such as metal thickness, line width, and spacing between conductive coils related to the performance of. ] After having a 54-foot, freestanding. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want. knowledge of AM antenna systems and the principles behind them has faded somewhat. Determine the antenna's resistance. 3 high dielectric resonator solution 15 1. Hf Antenna Design. Respectively, there are antennas with longitu-. The formulas above are for typical wire dimensions. Only 3 left in stock - order soon. An antenna is a device that provides a transition between electric currents on a conductor and electromagnetic waves in space. Historically, microwave engineering has provided solutions for these tasks. Some antennas possess a theoretical input impedance at the feedpoint close to that of certain trans-mission lines. , dish antennas), phased array. Antenna Design Software. The antenna will need a source. 3 diagrams the circuitry of a 3-band trap type antenna. Doublet – Multi-band antenna that is not resonant on a particular band. One should fit your need. Gray-Hoverman is an easy to build wideband UHF antenna. An antenna must be tuned (matched) to the same frequency band as the radio. Windom Antenna 6 7. The inverted V dipole antenna (fig. Digital OTA TV now offers more channels all with outstanding picture and sound quality. Antenna design can be put off until after the industrial/mechanical design. This feature allows for greater tuning versatility during development. LITTLE, INC. The most popular helical antenna (helix) is a travelling wave antenna in the shape of a corkscrew that produces radiation along the axis of the helix antenna. Choose a stable mount. Atayero, Matthew K. Miniaturization of the antennas, limited channel bandwidth, reduced design time, and antenna interaction with other components present stiff challenges to the design engineer. High level overview of the antenna architecture trade space addressed. MW Office contains a linear, harmonic-balance, time domain, EM simulation and physical layout. amplifiers in compression, mixers and oscillators. 2 WirelessCommunicationsandMobileComputing 2. " The reflector is on the far left in the picture above and the. MW Office contains a linear, harmonic-balance, time domain, EM simulation and physical layout. If the antenna is simple like dipole, ground plane, or loop, it may work out for you. In this new holistic design approach (Fig. 1 the need for multiple antennas 4 1. • Yagi Antenna Figure 7. Established in 1968, the Antennas & Electromagnetics (Antennas) Group has comprehensive experimental facilities housed in the Antenna Measurement Laboratory, which has recently received £1 million in infrastructure investment. Goulbourne Abstract This document describes how to design and develop custom antennas suitable for attaching to Texas Instruments’ Low Frequency (LF) Radio Frequency (RF) modules and readers. On this page you can read or download wave basics the physics classroom answers in PDF format. 8, 2009 153 Design and Evaluation of a Compact Antenna for Implant-to-Air UWB Communication Tharaka Dissanayake, Member, IEEE, Mehmet R. Antennas for 5G applications make use of the shorter element sizes at high frequencies to incorporate a larger count of radiating. The key design constraints when designing an integrated antenna for an AiP module are: ‐ Miniaturization of the antenna to fit into a small footprint. The basic antenna design is shown in Fig 1. This antenna is unique in its simplicity of design and powerful performance compared with standard directional receivers. Further, this antenna must be tunable over at least. The wireless range that an end-customer gets out of an RF product with a current-limited power source such as a coin-cell battery depends greatly on the antenna design, the enclosure, and a good PCB layout. To interpret this diagram, imagine that the antenna is at the origin. PRACTICAL ANTENNA DESIGN 140 -150 MHZ VHF TRANSCEIVERS Online Edition ELPIDIO LATORILLA LEDF Media. The simulation results of band notch antennas indicate that the proposed antenna fulfils the excellent band notch characteristics for various frequency bands and showing the good return loss and radiation. zip) MS-DOS Antenna Maker – it allows to quickly calculate dimensions for Quads antennas, Yagi antenna, Inverted vees antennas as well as J-poles and Traps to extend dipoles band coverage. for 1/2 inch copper pipe J-Pole antennas. We then study so-called long (i. Wave Antenna If the half-wave antenna can be impedance matched on all of its harmonics, you now have a multiband antenna. The surface mount feature of the ceramic chip antennas allows for them to be easily removed and replaced to accommodate quick hardware modifications. Air contest. Only 3 left in stock - order soon. 73 Dipoles and Long Wire Antennas. 4 GHz rectangular Microstrip patch antenna. AN383 6 Rev. The below described PCB antenna is nothing else as a “special ¼ wave whip” antenna where the whip is realized as copper trace on a PCB board. The more antenna tuners, matching devices, and electronic components in the signal path the more RF energy that is absorbed before getting to the receiver's front end. To approach the feature, design smart antenna by microstrip patch antenna array [2]. Bingeman, P. 1 introduction 4 1. We want enough beam width so aiming is not critical. The basic antenna design is shown in Fig 1. Solutions manual. A transmitting antenna transforms electric currents into radio waves and a receiving antenna transforms an electromagnetic field back into electric current. – Denotes the end of an example Satellite Link Design: A Tutorial Aderemi A. AlakMajumder "Design of an H-shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for Bluetooth Applications" International Journal of. Here you can downkoad the antenna and wave propagation or antenna theory and design books free pdf by all famous writer like K. Stutzman,‎ Gary A. Predicted data is shown for input impedance and radiation patterns. Thiele – PDF Free Download. This antenna consists of a 33 foot length of 3/4-inch diameter Dural tube, supported on a large stand-off insulator in such a manner than the angle of tilt can be ad- justed and the free end swung through an. Gain At VHF and UHF, it is possible to build Yagi antennas with very high gain—15 to 20 dB—on a physi-cally manageable boom. 8 Note:Crystal and digital audio mode cannot be used at the same time. In most cases, directional helical antennas are mounted over a ground plane, while omnidirectional designs may not be. Iterate the requirements after further research and study 6. Build a longwire antenna for 50 Mhz. Design of a broadband antenna element for LTE base station antennas MARIE L. Balanis Book Free Download. antennas and to show a useful impedance matching method. Dipole antenna basics. 2 2012-08-01 David WEI. If the loop is in the shape of square or large rectangle, the SWR can be below 2:1, but will not get much below 1. However, thanks to other hams like Steve AA5TB there are tried and tested designs, calculators & building methods that are known to work and that you can follow. All too often a wireless product with subpar performance may even fail network operator approvals due to a poor performing antenna. T is the summation of the antenna noise. Choose a stable mount. Do it With Wire Almost every ham likes to experiment with antennas. Their low profile design, often square or rectangular, allows them to be mounted to flat surfaces. antenna that is compact and easy to tune using readily available materials. AN 1629 UHF RFID Label Antenna Design UHF Antenna Design Antenna Design AN 1629 UHF RFID Label UHF Antenna Design Rev. Microstrip line feed Coax feed. Antenna design and RF layout are critical in a wireless system that transmits and receives electromagnetic radiation in free space. com 2 RF / Microwave Design - Contents 1) Recommended Reading List 2) Basics 3) Line Types and Impedance 4) Integral Components 5) Layout Techniques / Strategies 6) Power Bus 7) Board Stack-Up 8) Skin Effect and Loss Tangent 9) Shields and Shielding. com Master thesis Subject Category: Electrical Engineering– Communication and Signal processing University College of Borås School of Engineering SE‐501 90 BORÅS Telephone +46 033 435 4640. IMPROVED UAV DATALINK PERFORMANCE USING EMBEDDED ANTENNAS David M. added second version on the 13,00 M 7el OWA version. • If we assume othe average beamwidth of rhombic antenna as 10 , then design an antenna system such that it will radiate maximum power over the. "A fractal antenna is an antenna that uses a fractal, self-similar design to maximize the length, or increase the perimeter (on inside sections or the outer structure), of material that can receive or transmit electromagnetic signals within a given total surface area or volume. At the heart of every radio and MLA (Magnetic Loop Antenna) is the resonant circuit. 2101 1 DESIGN OF A YAGI-UDA ANTENNA WITH GAIN AND BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT FOR WI-FI AND WI-MAX APPLICATIONS Vinay Bankey 1 and N. Also called “patch antennas” One of the most useful antennas at microwave frequencies (f > 1 GHz). 7m AMA 8 Loop to a 20ft marine whip and against predicted data for an optimized 20ft center loaded whip. Though disappointed in losing, it did prove to Kent that the antennas. It is all about the situation and constraints. We will use this wavelength equation for all of our calculations. Introduction. WONDER BAR ANTENNA. update on the 4el owa, a “inch” version is added. The layout. 2 the need for antenna integration 5 1. In total, 64 F-117s have been built. — CRC Press, 2013. The Yagi antenna's overall basic design consists of a "resonant" fed dipole (the fed dipole is the driven element and in the picture above and the second from the left side ), with one or more parasitic elements. com Document No. However, with some improvements, the antenna can receive well both the UHF as well as VHF-Hi. The design is pretty Idiot Resistant. FREE Shipping. f +) (,) =. The end fed half wave antenna appears in many professional and amateur radio textbooks and the design of. , Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Supervisor: Prof. An article on this antenna was subsequently published in CQ - Summer Addition 2012. Begin construction of the antenna by marking a 3-inch X 20-inch board as shown in below. In this case I cut a 33. Gain At VHF and UHF, it is possible to build Yagi antennas with very high gain—15 to 20 dB—on a physi-cally manageable boom. •The radiation pattern of antenna is a representation (pictorial or mathematical) of the distribution of the power out-flowing (radiated) from the antenna (in the case of transmitting antenna), or inflowing (received) to the antenna (in the case of receiving antenna) as a function of direction angles from the antenna. instructables. The National Electrical Code covers the aspects. Quarter Wavelength Vertical Antenna 7 9. The structure of a folded dipole is shown below. It is a variable frequency signal generator that shows the matching – frequency, impedance and VSWR - of the connected antenna. , dish antennas), phased array. But due to increasing thickness, unwanted power. Click Apply to see the change in the helix antenna structure. IEEE Press - Wiley, 2003. The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays. International Journal of Antennas (JANT) Vol. 12 ESP32 Module Antenna Position on Base Board 10 13 Keepout Zone for ESP32 Module’s Antenna on the Base Board 11 14 ESP32 Power Traces in a Four-layer PCB Design 11 15 ESP32 Power Traces in a Two-layer PCB Design 12 16 ESP32 Crystal Oscillator Layout 13 17 ESP32 RF Layout in a Four-layer PCB Design 14 18 ESP32 RF Layout in a Two-layer PCB. Active 3-30 MHz Hula-Loop Antenna for Shortwave - If you have a shortwave or high-frequency receiver or scanner that is struggling to capture signals with a short, whip antenna, and you'd like the kind of performance that a 60-foot 'longwire' antenna can provide but lack the space to put one up, consider. PDF | Design of 3 elements Yagi-Uda Antenna with wide bandwidth and Design of 7 elements Yagi-Uda Antenna with high gain | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. Kasi, Ping, Chakrabarty, proposed the design of compact microstrip-fed patch antenna for UWB application. When horizontally mounted, the antenna pattern is omnidirectional with nulls straight up and. Week 1 topics: Introduction and course outline. Dear User, this browser is not supported by this application. A detailed geometry for a E-plane antenna is given in Figure 4. The return loss and the various gain plots have been studied along with the radiation patterns. 13 should be consulted. Helical antennas invented by John Kraus give a circular polarized wave. Antenna Design. LF Antenna Design Guide J. 10 AND 12 METER WIRE. Antenna: Over-The-Air HDTV Antenna Instructions Antenna Fundamentals- Module 4: Radio Antenna Systems - Antenna Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition Antenna Engineering Handbook Small Antenna Design (Communications Engineering (Paperback)) Practical Antenna Handbook 5/e Small Antenna Handbook Phased Array Antenna Handbook, Second Edition. We want enough forward gain to hit the local repeater. changeable names [2] [7]. The antenna consists of a half-way dipole driven element and a passive reflector. From Balanis the aperture fields for the E-Plane Horn are 9. Dear User, this browser is not supported by this application. Products include HDTV antennas, satellite equipment, cellular gear and accessories, video security, Sirius satellite radios, LCD television mounting supplies, GPS navigation. It is the purpose of this paper to provide the interested reader with a general body of knowledge of AM antenna systems. • Explain resonant and non-resonant modes of Long Wire Antenna. Once an array has been designed to focus towards a particular direction, it. for 1/2 inch copper pipe J-Pole antennas. First published in 1981, Robert S. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. About the Tutorial This tutorial is meant to provide the readers a detailed description of the antennas used in communication systems. In Section. Usually we are only interested in the maximum gain — the direction in which the. The size of the antenna is reduced by beveling the patch with rectangular slot and partial ground plane. This is often a good solution since it utilizes unused volume for a product. Free Online Engineering Calculator to quickly estimate the Dimensions of a Helix Antenna. Hf Antenna Design. Antenna design is a very complex process that requires simulation tools and experienced RF antenna designers. The VHF-Hi band covers 175 to 230 MHz. Further, this antenna must be tunable over at least. Antenna Design was founded in 1997 by Masamichi Udagawa, a Cranbrook Academy graduate, and Sigi Moeslinger, who holds degrees from NYU and Art Center College of Design. Saya pahrurrozi 6,472 views. • Resonant antennas radiate better than non-resonant antennas. changeable names [2] [7]. antenna: two crossed dipoles fed 90 ° out of phase. One way is the frequency band of operation. Antenna Aperture Design The ACE antenna architecture [1-4] was the starting point when considering options for adding Ku- and/or W- band AESA scanning capability. However, we shall see that for a feed antenna, the radiation patterns are much more useful near the center of the range. Microstrip Patch Antennas (or simply patch antenna) are increasingly useful because the antenna is printed directly onto a circuit board. Kraus (1950). Get it at Radio Shack. Skrivervik, LEMA, June 2008 1 Electrically Small Antenna Design Anja K. A)Figure of 3D polar plot for patch array antenna Thus the design and simulation of microstrip patch array moin _patch_arrayantenna. The soil was a very wet, sandy, black loam. Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook. A well-designed reflector surface with high beam pointing accuracy in electromagnetic performance is of practical significance to the space application of cable mesh reflector antennas. Chapter three discuss the steps on designing the proposed fractal dipole antenna, the software used for design and simulation, the structure of the designed.